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		<FONT SIZE="4">I Ching</FONT><BR>

<FONT SIZE=“2”>Richard Wilhelm’s and Cary F. Baynes translation “I Ching: Or, Book of Changes”

[3rd. ed., Bollingen Series XIX, (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967, 1st ed. 1950)]<BR>

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1. Ch'ien / The Creative <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 2. K'un / The Receptive
3. Chun / Difficulty at the Beginning <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 4. M&ecirc;ng / Youthful Folly
5. Hs&uuml; / Waiting (Nourishment) <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 6. Sung / Conflict
7. Shih / The Army <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 8. Pi / Holding Together [union]
9. Hsiao Ch'u / The Taming Power of the Small <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 10. L&uuml; / Treading [conduct]
11. T'ai / Peace <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 12. P'i / Standstill [Stagnation]
13. T'ung J&ecirc;n / Fellowship with Men <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 14. Ta Yu / Possession in Great Measure
15. Ch'ien / Modesty <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 16. Y&uuml; / Enthusiasm
17. Sui / Following <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 18. Ku / Work on what has been spoiled [ Decay ]
19. Lin / Approach <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 20. Kuan / Contemplation (View)
21. Shih Ho / Biting Through <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 22. Pi / Grace
23. Po / Splitting Apart <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 24. Fu / Return (The Turning Point)
25. Wu Wang / Innocence (The Unexpected) <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 26. Ta Ch'u / The Taming Power of the Great
27. I / Corners of the Mouth (Providing Nourishment) <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 28. Ta Kuo / Preponderance of the Great
29. K'an / The Abysmal (Water) <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 30. Li / The Clinging, Fire
31. Hsien / Influence (Wooing) <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 32. H&ecirc;ng / Duration
33. TUN / Retreat <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 34. Ta Chuang / The Power of the Great
35. Chin / Progress <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 36. Ming I / Darkening of the light
37. Chia J&ecirc;n / The Family [The Clan] <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 38. K'uei / Opposition
39. Chien / Obstruction <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 40. Hsieh / Deliverance
41. Sun / Decrease <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 42. I / Increase
43. Kuai / Break-through (Resoluteness) <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 44. Kou / Coming to Meet
45. Ts'ui / Gathering Together [Massing] <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 46. Sh&ecirc;ng / Pushing Upward
47. K'un / Oppression (Exhaustion) <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 48. Ching / The Well
49. Ko / Revolution (Molting) <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 50. Ting / The Caldron
51. Ch&ecirc;n / The Arousing (Shock, Thunder) <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 52. K&ecirc;n / Keeping Still, Mountain
53. Chien / Development (Gradual Progress) <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 54. Kuei Mei / The Marrying Maiden
55. F&ecirc;ng / Abundance [Fullness] <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 56. L&uuml; / The Wanderer
57. Sun / The Gentle (The Penetrating, Wind) <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 58. Tui / The Joyous, Lake
59. Huan / Dispersion [Dissolution] <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 60. Chieh / Limitation
61. Chung Fu / Inner Truth <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 62. Hsiao Kuo / Preponderance of the Small
63. Chi Chi / After Completion <FONT SIZE=“4”>| 64. Wei Chi / Before Completion


	1. Ch'ien / The Creative

The first hexagram is made up of six unbroken lines. These unbroken lines
stand for the primal power, which is light-giving, active, strong, and of the
spirit. The hexagram is consistently strong in character, and since it is
without weakness, its essence is power or energy. Its image is heaven. Its
energy is represented as unrestricted by any fixed conditions in space and is
therefore conceived of as motion. Time is regarded as the basis of this
motion. Thus the hexagram includes also the power of time and the power
of persisting in time, that is, duration.

  The power represented by the hexagram is to be interpreted in a dual sense in terms of its action on the universe and of its action on the world of men.
In relation to the universe, the hexagram expresses the strong, creative action
of the Deity. In relation to the human world, it denotes the creative action of
the holy man or sage, of the ruler or leader of men, who through his power
awakens and develops their higher nature.
   THE CREATIVE works sublime success,
   Furthering through perseverance.

According to the original meaning, the attributes [sublimity, potentiality of
success, power to further, perseverance] are paired. When an individual
draws this oracle, it means that success will come to him from the primal
depths of the universe and that everything depends upon his seeking his
happiness and that of others in one way only, that is, by perseverance in what
is right.

  The specific meanings of the four attributes became the subject of speculation at an early date. The Chinese word here rendered by “sublime”
means literally “head,” “origin,” “great.” This is why Confucius says in
explaining it: “Great indeed is the generating power of the Creative; all beings
owe their beginning to it. This power permeates all heaven.” For this
attribute inheres in the other three as well.
The beginning of all things lies still in the beyond in the form of ideas that have yet to become real. But the Creative furthermore has power to lend
form to these archetypes of ideas. This is indicated in the word success, and
the process is represented by an image from nature: “The clouds pass and the
rain does its work, and all individual beings flow into their forms.”
Applies to the human world, these attributes show the great man the way to notable success: “Because he sees with great clarity and cause and effects, he
completes the six steps at the right time and mounts toward heaven on them
at the right time, as though on six dragons.” The six steps are the six different
positions given in the hexagram, which are represented later by the dragon
symbol. Here it is shown that the way to success lies in apprehending and
giving actuality to the way of the universe [Tao], which, as a law running
through end and beginning, brings about all phenomena in time. Thus each
step attained forthwith becomes a preparation for the next. Time is no longer
a hindrance but the means of making actual what is potential.
The act of creation having found expression in the two attributes sublimity and success, the work of conservation is shown to be a continuous
actualization and differentiation of form. This is expressed in the two terms
“furthering” (literally, “creating that which accords with the nature of a
given being”) and “persevering” (literally, “correct and firm”). “The course of
the Creative alters and shapes beings until each attains its true, specific
nature, then it keeps them in conformity with the Great Harmony. Thus
does it show itself to further through perseverance.”
In relation to the human sphere, this shows how the great man brings peace and security to the world through his activity in creating order: “He towers
high above the multitude of beings, and all lands are united in peace.”
Another line of speculation goes still further in separating the words “sublime,” “success,” “furthering,” “perseverance,” and parallels them with
the four cardinal virtues in humanity. To sublimity, which, as the
fundamental principle, embraces all the other attributes, it links love. To the
attribute success are linked the morals, which regulate and organize
expressions of love and thereby make them successful. The attribute
furthering is correlated with justice, which creates the conditions in which
each receives that which accords with his being, that which is due him and
which constitutes his happiness. The attribute perseverance is correlated
with wisdom, which discerns the immutable laws of all that happens and can
therefore bring about enduring conditions. These speculations, already
broached in the commentary called Wên Yen , later formed the bridge
connecting the philosophy of the “five stages (elements) of change,” as laid
down in the Book of History (Shu Ching) with the philosophy of the Book of
Changes, which is based solely on the polarity of positive and negative
principles. In the course of time this combination of the two systems of
thought opened the way for an increasingly intricate number symbolism.
 	The movement of heaven is full of power. 
	Thus the superior man makes himself strong and 

Since there is only one heaven, the doubling of the trigram Ch’ien, of which
heaven is the image, indicates the movement of heaven. One complete
revolution of heaven makes a day, and the repetition of the trigram means
that each day is followed by another. This creates the idea of time. Since it is
the same heaven moving with untiring power, there is also created the idea
of duration both in and beyond time, a movement that never stops nor
slackens, just as one day follows another in an unending course. This
duration in time is the image of the power inherent in the Creative.

  With this image as a model, the sage learns how best to develop himself so that his influence may endure. He must make himself strong in every way,
by consciously casting out all that is inferior and degrading. Thus he attains
that tirelessness which depends upon consciously limiting the fields of his
	Nine at the beginning means:
	Hidden dragon. Do not act.

In China the dragon has a meaning altogether different from that given it in
the Western world. The dragon is a symbol of the electrically charged,
dynamic, arousing force that manifests itself in the thunderstorm. In winter
this energy withdraws into the earth; in the early summer it becomes active
again, appearing in the sky as thunder and lightning. As a result the creative
forces on earth begin to stir again.

  Here this creative force is still hidden beneath the earth and therefore has no effect. In terms of human affairs, this symbolizes a great man who is still
unrecognized. Nonetheless he remains true to himself. He does not allow
himself to be influenced by outward success or failure, but confident in his
strength, he bides his time. Hence it is wise for the man who consults the
oracle and draws this line to wait in the calm strength of patience. The time
will fulfill itself. One need not fear least strong will should not prevail; the
main thing is not to expend one’s powers prematurely in an attempt to obtain
by force something for which the time is not yet ripe.
	Nine in the second place means:
	Dragon appearing in the field.
	It furthers one to see the great man.

Here the effects of the light-giving power begin to manifest themselves. In
terms of human affairs, this means that the great man makes his appearance
in his chosen field of activity. As yet he has no commanding position but is
still with his peers. However, what distinguishes him form the others is his
seriousness of purpose, his unqualified reliability, and the influence he exerts
on his environment with out conscious effort. Such a man is destined to
gain great influence and to set the world in order. Therefore it is favorable to
see him.

	Nine in the third place means:
	All day long the superior man is creatively active.
	At nightfall his mind is still beset with cares.
	Danger. No blame.

A sphere of influence opens up for the great man. His fame begins to spread.
The masses flock to him. His inner power is adequate to the increased outer
activity. There are all sorts of things to be done, and when others are at rest in
the evening, plans and anxieties press in upon him. But danger lurks here at
the place of transition from lowliness to the heights. Many a great man has
been ruined because the masses flocked to him and swept him into their
course. Ambition has destroyed his integrity. However, true greatness is not
impaired by temptations. He who remains in touch with the time that is
dawning, and with its demands is prudent enough to avoid all pitfalls, and
remains blameless.

	Nine in the fourth place means:
	Wavering flight over the depths.
	No blame.

A place of transition has been reached, and free choice can enter in. A
twofold possibility is presented to the great man: he can soar to the heights
and play an important part in the world, or he can withdraw into solitude
and develop himself. He can go the way of the hero or that of the holy sage
who seeks seclusion. There is no general law of his being. If the individual
acts consistently and is true to himself, he will find the way that is appropriate
for him. This way is right for him and without blame.

	&#176;Nine in the fifth place means:
	Flying dragon in the heavens.
	It furthers one to see the great man.

Here the great man has attained the sphere of the heavenly beings. His
influence spreads and becomes visible throughout the whole world.
Everyone who sees him may count himself blessed. Confucius says about this

Things that accord in tone vibrate together. Things that have affinity in their
inmost natures seek one another. Water flows to what is wet, fire turns to
what is dry. Clouds (the breath of heaven) follow the dragon, wind (the breath
of earth) follows the tiger. Thus the sage arises, and all creatures follow him
with their eyes. What is born of heaven feels related to what is above. What
is born of earth feels related to what is below. Each follows its kind.

	Nine at the top means:
	Arrogant dragon will have cause to repent.

When a man seeks to climb so high that he loses touch with the rest of
mankind, he becomes isolated, and this necessarily leads to failure. This line
warns against titanic aspirations that exceed one’s power. A precipitous fall
would follow.

	When all the lines are nines, it means:
	There appears a flight of dragons without heads.
	Good fortune.

When all the lines are nines, it means that the whole hexagram is in motion
and changes into the hexagram K’un, THE RECEPTIVE, whose character is
devotion. The strength of the Creative and the mildness of the Receptive
unite. Strength is indicated by the flight of dragons, mildness by the fact that
their heads are hidden. This means that mildness in action joined to strength
of decision brings good fortune.

	2. K'un / The Receptive

This hexagram is made up of broken lines only. The broken lines represents
the dark, yielding, receptive primal power of yin. The attribute of the
hexagram is devotion; its image is the earth. It is the perfect complement of
THE CREATIVE--the complement, not the opposite, for the Receptive does
not combat the Creative but completes it . It represents nature in contrast to
spirit, earth in contrast to heaven, space as against time, the female-maternal
as against the male-paternal. However, as applied to human affairs, the
principle of this complementary relationship is found not only in the relation
between man and woman, but also in that between prince and minister and
between father and son. Indeed, even in the individual this duality appears
in the coexistence of the spiritual world and the world of the senses.

  But strictly speaking there is no real dualism here, because there is a clearly defined hierarchic relationship between the two principles. In itself of course
the Receptive is just as important as the Creative, but the attribute of
devotion defines the place occupied by this primal power in relation to the
Creative. For the Receptive must be activated and led by the Creative; then it
is productive of good. Only when it abandons this position and tries to stand
as an equal side by side with the Creative, does it become evil. The result
then is opposition to and struggle against the Creative, which is productive of
evil to both.
	THE RECEPTIVE brings about sublime success,
	Furthering through the perseverance of a mare.
	If the superior man undertakes something and tries to lead,
	He goes astray;
	But if he follows, he finds guidance.
	It is favorable to find friends in the west and south,
	To forego friends in the east and north.
	Quiet perseverance brings good fortune.

The four fundamental aspects of the Creative--“sublime success, furthering
through perseverance”--are also attributed to the Receptive. Here, however,
the perseverance is more closely defined: it is that of a mare. The Receptive
connotes spatial reality in contrast to the spiritual potentiality of the Creative.
The potential becomes real and the spiritual becomes spatial through a
specifically qualifying definition. Thus the qualification, “of a mare,” is here
added to the idea of perseverance. The horse belongs to earth just as the
dragon belongs to heaven. Its tireless roaming over the plains is taken as a
symbol of the vast expanse of the earth. This is the symbol chosen because
the mare combines the strength and swiftness of the horse with the
gentleness and devotion of the cow.

  Only because nature in its myriad forms corresponds with the myriad impulses of the Creative can it make these impulses real. Nature’s richness
lies in its power to nourish all living things; its greatness lies in its power to
give then beauty and splendor. Thus it prospers all that lives. IT is the
Creative that begets things, but they are brought to birth by the Receptive.
Applied to human affairs, therefore, what the hexagram indicated is action in
conformity with the situation. The person in questions not in an
independent position, but is acting as an assistant. This means that he must
achieve something. It is not his task to try to lead--that would only make him
lose the way-but to let himself be led. If he knows how to meet fate with an
attitude of acceptance, he is sure to find the right guidance. The superior man
lets himself be guided; he does not go ahead blindly, but learns from the
situation what is demanded of him and then follows this intimation from
Since there is something to be accomplished, we need friends and helpers in the hour of toil and effort, once the ideas to be realized are firmly set. The
time of toil and effort is indicated by the west and south, for west and south
symbolize the place where the Receptive works for the Creative, as nature
does in summer and autumn. If in that situation one does not mobilize all
one’s powers, the work to be accomplished will not be done. Hence to find
friends there means to find guidance. But in addition to the time of toil and
effort, there is also a time of planning, and for this we need this solitude. The
east symbolized the place where a man receives orders from his master, and
the north the place where he reports on what he has done. At that time he
must be alone and objective. In this sacred hour he must do without
companions. So that the purity of the moment may not be spoiled by fictional
hates and favoritism.
	The earth's condition is receptive devotion.
	Thus the superior man who has breadth of character
	Carries the outer world.

Just as there is only one heaven, so too there is only one earth. In the
hexagram of heaven the doubling of the trigram implies duration in time,
but in the hexagram of earth the doubling connotes the solidity and extension
in space by virtue of which the earth is able to carry and preserve all things
that live and move upon it. The earth in its devotion carries all things, good
and evil,, without exception. In the same way the superior man gives to his
character breadth, purity, and sustaining power, so that he is able both to
support and to bear with people and things.

	Six at the beginning means:
	When there is hoarfrost underfoot,
	Solid ice is not far off.

Just as the light-giving power represents life, so the dark power, the shadowy,
represents death. When the first hoarfrost comes in the autumn, the power
of darkness and cold is just at its beginning. After these first warnings, signs
of death will gradually multiply, until, in obedience to immutable laws, stark
winter with its ice is here.

  In life it is the same. After certain scarcely noticeable signs of decay have appeared, they go on increasing until final dissolution comes. But in life
precautions can be taken by heeding the first signs of decay and checking them
in time.
	&#176;Six in the second place means:
	Straight, square, great.
	Without purpose,
	Yet nothing remains unfurthered.

The symbol of heaven is the circle, and that of earth is the square. Thus
squareness is a primary quality of the earth. On the other hand, movement
in a straight line, as well as magnitude, is a primary quality of the Creative.
But all square things have their origin in a straight line and into turn form
solid bodies. In mathematics, when we discriminate between lines, planes
and solids, we find that rectangular planes result from straight lines, and
cubic magnitudes from rectangular planes. The Receptive accommodates
itself to the qualities of the Creative and makes them its own. Thus a square
develops out of a straight line and a cube out of a square. This is compliance
with the laws of the Creative; nothing is taken away, nothing added.
Therefore the Receptive has no need of a special purpose of its own, nor of
any effort’ yet everything turns out as it should.

  Nature creates all beings without erring: this is its foursquareness. It tolerates all creatures equally: this is its greatness. Therefore it attains what is
right for all without artifice or special intentions. Man achieves the height of
wisdom when all that he does is as self-evident as what nature does.
	Six in the third place means:
	Hidden lines.
	One is able to remain persevering.
	If by chance you are in the service of a king,
	Seek not works, but bring to completion.

If a man is free of vanity he is able to conceal his abilities and keep them from
attracting attention too soon; thus he can mature undisturbed. If conditions
demand it, he can also enter public life, but that too he does with restraint.
The wise man gladly leaves fame to others. He does not seek to have credited
to himself things that stand accomplished, but hopes to release active forces;
that is, he completes his works in such a manner that they may bear fruit for
the future.

	Six in the fourth place means:
	A tied-up sack. No blame, no praise.

The dark element opens when it moves and closes when at rest. The strictest
reticence is indicated here. The time is dangerous , because any degree of
prominence leads either to the enmity of irresistible antagonists if one
challenges them or to misconceived recognition if one is complaisant.
Therefore a man ought to maintain reserve, be it in solitude or in the turmoil
of the world, for there too he can hide himself so well that no one knows

	Six in the fifth place means:
	A yellow lower garment brings supreme good fortune.

Yellow is the color of the earth and of the middle; it is the symbol of that
which is reliable and genuine. The lower garment is inconspicuously
decorated--the symbol of aristocratic reserve. When anyone is called upon to
work in a prominent but not independent position, true success depends on
the utmost discretion. A man’s genuineness and refinement should not
reveal themselves directly; they should express themselves only indirectly as
an effect from within.

	Six at the top means:
	Dragons fight in the meadow.
	Their blood is black and yellow.

In the top place the dark element should yield to the light. If it attempts to
maintain a position to which it is not entitled and to rule instead of serving,
it draws down upon itself the anger of the strong. A struggle ensues in which
it is overthrown, with injury, however, to both sides. The dragon, symbol of
heaven, comes to fight the false dragon that symbolized the inflation of the
earth principle. Midnight blue is the color