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Trail: particles

particles

Language 日本語

I. Japanese particles are always attached to other words, phrases, and clauses, and act functionally in showing the relationships between these words, phrases, and clauses.

II. Particles and Their Functions:

    a.  Indicates that the preceding word is the definite subject of the sentence.  E.g.:
        花 が さきます。                     Flowers bloom.
        あのかた が 先生です。                He is a teacher.
        本 が あります。                     There is a book.
    b.  が in the following sentences should also be considered as a particle attached to the subject:
        日本語 が じょずです。                 I am good in Japanese.
        かんじ が かけない。                   I cannot write Kanji.
        かく こと が できる。                  I can write.
    c.  が used with words expressing desire, like, dislike, and need, shows the direct object.
        魚(さかな) が 好き です。           I like fish.
        水(みず)が のみたい です。 `         I want to drink water.
        女(おんな)が  きらい です。          I dislike women.
        おかね が ほしい です。              I want money.
	
    d.  Following the conclusive-attributive base of inflected words, が expresses opposition to the statement:  "but"
        (1)  かぜ は ふく が さむく は ありません。
                It is windy, but it is not cold.
        (2)  あの人 は よく 勉強(べんきょう)します が よく できません。
                He studies hard, but he does not do well.
        (3)  よんだ が へんじ が ありませんでした。
                I called, but there was no answer.
        (4)  勉強(べんきょう) したい が ひま が ない。
                I want to study, but don't have the time.
        (5)  すこし さむい が がいとう を きない。
                It's a little cold, but I'm not going to wear a topcoat.
    e.  が is often used to join two sentences:  "and"
             わたくし も あの じどうしゃ に のりました が、 たいへん いい 車 です。
                I, too, rode in that car, and it is a very good car.

    a.  Following nouns の indicates possession:  "of"
        (1)  わたくし の エンピツ        my pencil
        (2)  先生 の 本             teacher's book
        (3)  あき の こえ            voices of Autumn
    b.  の indicates the subject of adjective clauses:
        (1)  わたくし の よんだ 本           the book I read
        (2)  ねこ の たべた 魚               the fish the cat ate
    c.  Following substantives, especially concrete nouns, の forms attributive quasi-adjectives:
        (1)  てつ の はし                   steel bridge
        (2)  金 の ゆびわ                   gold ring
        (3)  あき の つき                   autumn moon
        (4)  しほん の あし                 four legs
    d.  Following the conclusive-attributive base of inflected words の serves to nominalize (make a noun out of) that which precedes it:
        (1)  あさ はやく おきる の は からだ に いい です。
                To get up (getting up) early in the morning is good for one's health.
        (2)  日本語 を ならう の は むずかしく は ないです。
                It is not difficult to learn Japanese.
    e.  Pronoun use:  following nouns and the conclusive-attributive base of adjectives and verbs, の is used as a pronoun:  "-----one"
        (1) 新しい(あたらしい)の は たかい です。        
             New ones are expensive.
        (2) ちゃいろ の は やすい です。                
             Brown ones are cheap.
        (3) あそこ に いく行く の は 山田さん です。
                The one that goes over there is Mr. Yamada.
     f.  Following personal pronouns, の forms their possessive cases:  “mine, his, ours, theirs, etc.”     (1) わたくし の は 新しい です。    Mine is new.
  (2) あのかた の は 赤い(あかい) です。 His is red.
    g.  Following nouns and the conclusive-attributive base of inflected words, の expresses the meaning of “what with—what with, and.”
        (1) かつどう の しばい の と まいばん でて あそびます。
                What with the movies and plays, he goes out to play every night.
        (2) たかい の やすい の と いって かいません。
                (What) with comments of (too) expensive and (too) cheap, he doesn’t buy anything.
        (3) 行く の 行かない の と こまっています。
                He is in a dilemma, what with going and not going.
                He is in a dilemma, saying he’s going one minute and saying he is not going the next.

    a.  Following nouns, を indicates that whatever precedes it is the direct object:
        (1) ごはん を 食べる(たべる)。     I eat meals.
        (2) 本 を 読む(よむ)。            I read books.
    b.  Following nouns, を indicates the locale of locomotive action.
        (1) まち を あるく。                       I walk through town.
        (2) みち を さんぽ する。                I take a stroll on the road.
        (3) 鳥(とり) が そら を とんでいます。     Birds are flying in the sky.
    
        ''Note:  Other locomotive action verbs are:''
         走る(はしる) – to run 
         とうる – to pass through 
         かけまわる – to run around 
    c.  Following nouns, を indicates the point from which locomotive actions start.
        (1) 東京 を 出ます。(でます)    I leave Tokyo.
        (2) いえ を 出かける。          I leave the house.
        (3) 国(くに)を はなれる。       I leave my native land.
        (4) でんしゃ を おりる。          I get off the streetcar.

    a.  Following nouns に indicates locale with verbs of existence, いる, ある:  “in, on"
        (1)  せいと ご へや に います。
                Students (pupils) are in the room.
        (2)  いろいろ の もの が みせ に あります。
                There are various things in the store.
        ''Note:  After が, iru is used when the subject is animate, aru if the subject is inanimate.''
    b.  Following nouns に indicates the point of arrival of actions:
        (1)  先生 に なります。      I will become a teacher.
        (2)  おや に にています。     I resemble my parents.
    c.  Following nouns and the conjunctive base of verbs, に indicates the purpose of “coming” or “going.”
        (1)  ひるはn を 食べ に かえります。      I go home to eat lunch.
        (2)  えいが を 見 に 行きます。          I go to see movies.
        (3)  さんぽ に 出かけます。               I go out for strolls.
    d.  Following nouns に indicates the indirect object:  “to”
        (1)  せいと の 日本語 を おしえる。       I teach Japanese to students.
        (2)  こども に おかね を おくる。         I send money to my children.
    e.  Following nouns ni indicates time, “at” or “on”
        (1)  Watakushi wa rokuji ni okimasu.               I get up at six.
        (2)  Watakushi wa nichiyōbi ni kimasu.          I will come on Sunday.
    f.  Following nouns ni indicates the agent of a passive, potential, causative, or passive causative verb.
        (1)  dorobō ni nusumareta                               stolen by a robber
        (2)  Sore wa kodomo ni kakemasu.                    It can be written by children.
        (3)  Watakushi wa kodomo ni kakasemasu.     I’ll let the children write.
        (4)  Seito wa sensei ni kakaseraremasu.         Students are made to write by the teacher.
    g.  Following nouns ni indicates ratio, or proportion.
         (1)  Rokunin no seito ni sensei ga hitori imasu.   There is one teacher per six students.
        (2)  Ichinichi ni sando tabemasu.                   I eat three times per day.
        (3)  Ichinen ni kanji o gohyaku naraimasu.      I learn 500 Kanji per year.
    h.  Following nouns ni indicates the meaning of “for”
        (1)  Karada ni yoku wa arimasen.                    It is not good for one’s health.
        (2)  Me ni warui desu.                                  It is bad for the eyes.
    i.  Following nouns ni indicates destination of locomotive verbs.
        (1)  Gakkō ni iku.                                          I go to school.
        (2)  San Furanshisuko ni kitta.                     I came to San Francisco.
    j.  Following nouns ni indicates a series of things:  “and,” “in addition to”
    Katakana ni kanji ni hiragana o naratta.                I learned, katakana, kanji, and hiragana.
    k.  Following nouns and used together with yoru (depends on) ni yoru to corresponds to “according to"
        (1)  shimbun ni yoru to                                 according to the newspaper
        (2)  Kesa no shinbun ni yoru to ashita wa ame ga furu sō desu.
                According to this morning’s newspaper, it is going to rain tomorrow.Note: When ni yoru to is used in the Japanese sentence, sō desu or some other words that express the idea of “I hear” is tacked on to the end of the statement.
    l.  Ni suru after a noun or a pronoun means “to decide on”
        (1)  Dotchi ni shimashō ka.     .                   Which shall I decide on?
        (2)  Ashita ni shimashō.                                    Let’s make it tomorrow.
    m.  Ni ataru after a noun or a pronoun means “corresponds to--”
        (1)  Ichi-doru wa 360 en ni atarimasu.              One dollar is equivalent to 360 yen.
        (2)  Kurisumasu wa nichiyōbi ni atarimasu.      Christmas falls on Sunday.
    n.  Ni komaru used idiomatically with such nouns as henji (reply, answer),  kotae (answer) expresses “to be troubled for--”
        Henji ni komarimashita.                             I was troubled for an answer.

5. E

    a.  Following nouns e indicates direction or place toward which an action moves:  “to,” “toward”
        (1)  Nippon e ikimasu.                                  I go to Japan.
        (2)  Gakkō e kuru.                                      I come to school.
    b.  Following nouns e indicates the indirect object, “to”
        (1)  Tomodachi e tegami o dashimasu.            I send a letter to a friend.
        (2)  Kodomo e zasshi o okurimasu.               I send a magazine to my children.

6. To

    a.  Indicates the substantive to which it is attached is in a series of substantives, all named:  “and”
        (1)  Sensei to seito ga imasu.                      There are teachers and students.
        (2)  Enpitsu to hon ga arimasu.                 There are pencils and books.

b. Following nouns to indicates accompaniment.

        (1)  Tomodachi to asobimasu.                        I play with my friend.
        (2)  Kodomo to sampo shimasu.                   I take strolls with my children.
    c.  Following sentences to indicates that which is said or thought (direct and indirect quotations):
        (1)  Nippongo wa muzukashii to omoimasu.I think that the Japanese language is difficult.
(2) Ano hito wa sakana o taberu to iimasu. He says, “I eat fish.” He says that he eats fish.
    d.  Following nouns to indicates the terminal point or result of actions.
        (1)  Watakushi wa sensei to narimasu.           I become a teacher.
        (2)  Isha to narimasu.                              I become a doctor.
    e.  Following the present conclusive-attributive base of verbs to expresses a hypothesis or condition:  “if,” “when”
        (1)  Ame ga furu to michi ga waruku narimasu.
                If (or when) it rains, the road becomes bad.
        (2)  Ame ga furanai to ikimasen.                    If it does not rain, I’ll go.
    f.  Following the present conclusive-attributive base of verbs, to helps to indicate the time when an action in the succeeding statement took place:  “when,” “just as”
        Note:  The second verb is in the past tense.
        (1)  Uchi e kaeru to sugu kuraku natta.         Immediately upon returning home, it                                                                                 became dark.
        (2)  Soto e deru to ame ga furihajimeta.        When I went out, it started to rain.
    g.  Following conjectural auxiliaries u, yō, or mai, to expresses a hypothesis; and this is followed by the expression of an attitude which objects to or disregards the action that is assumed:  “whether or not”
        (1)  Ame ga furō to furumai to kamaimasen.
                Whether it rains or not, I don’t care.
        (2)  Ikō to ikumai to suki na yō ni shinasai.
                Whether you go or not, do as you please.
    h.  Following the present or past conclusive-attributive base of inflected words, to occurs in the phrase to no koto desu, to no hanashi desu, which means “they say that---“ “it is said that---“
(1) Nippon wa ima samui to no koto desu. They say that Japan is cold now. (2) Kinō San Furanshisuko wa ame ga futta to no hanashi desu. They say that it rained yesterday in San Francisco.
    i.  The conjectural base of a verb followed by to plus suru expresses “to try to . . .”
        Note:  The same construction may also mean, “to be about to . . .”
        (1)  Yamamoto-san wa momo o kirō to shimashita ga, kiru koto ga dekimasen deshita.
                Mr. Yamamoto tried to cut the peach, but wa not able to do so.
        (2)  Yamamoto-san ga momo o kirō to suru to, naka kara ōkii mono ga dete kimashita.
                As Mr. Yamamoto was about to cut the peach, a large thing came out of it.
    j.  Used idiomatically with chigaimasu, and  onaji desu, means “different from . . ” and “same as . . .’
        (1)  A wa B to chigaimasu.                      A is different from B.
        (2)  A wa B to onaji desu.                      A is the same as B.
    k.  Following the conclusive-attributive base of inflected words and preceding to miete, the meaning of “it seems as. . .” is expressed.
        Ano hito wa byōki da to miete. . .              It seems as if he is sick and . . .

7. Ya

    a.  Indicates that the substantive to which it is attached is in a series of substantives, incompletely named:  “and”
        Note:  ya is not used after the last substantive in the series.
        (1)  Tsukue no ue ni hon ya enpitsu ga arimasu.
                There are books, and pencils, etc., on the desk.
        (2)  Watakushi wa enpitsu ya kami o kaimashita.
                I bought pencils and paper, etc.”

8. De

    a.  Following nouns de indicates means:  “with”
        (1)  Enpitsu de kaku.                               I write with a pencil.
        (2)  Me de mono o miru.                     I see things with my eyes.
    b.  Following nouns de indicates materials of which things are made:  “of”
        (1)  Tsukue wa ki de koshiraete arimasu.
                The desk is made of wood.
        (2)  Kono hako wa kami de koshiraete arimasu.
                This box is made of paper.
    c.  Following place nouns de indicates location where actions take place:  “in, at”
        (1)  Watakushi wa kono ho o mise de kaimashita.
                I bought this book at a store.
        (2)  Watakushi wa Nippon de Fujisan o mimashita.
                I saw Mt. Fuji in Japan.
    d.  Following nouns de indicates cause or reason:  “because of, owing to, on account of, by”
        (1)  Watakushi wa byōki de gakkō e ikimasen deshita.
                On account of sickness, I didn’t go to school.
        (2)  Shiken de isogashii desu.
                I am busy because of examinations.
    e.  Following nouns de indicates the second number of an equation sentence in which the verb is aru or gozaru “to be” or their negatives:
        (1)  Watakushi wa gaijin desu.              I am a soldier.
        (2)  Sore wa tsukue de wa arimasen          That is not a desk.
    f.  Following place nouns de indicates the meaning of “within the limits of . . .,” “in.”  Distinguish this usage from that of “c” where de is followed by an action verb.
            (1)  Nippon de ichiban takai yama wa Fujisan desu.
                    The tallest mountain in Japan is Mt. Fuji.
            (2)  Kono heya de ichiban yoku dekiru seito wa Sumisu-san desu.
                    The best student in this room is Mr. Smith
    g.  Following numerical classifiers and such words as minna, de indicates the sum or total amount:
        (1)  Ichi dāsu de rokujissen desu.              It is sixty sen for one dozen.
        (2)  Gohan de go en desu.                           It is five yen for five.
        (3)  Minna de yonjū-hachi arimasu.              There are forty-eight in all.
    h.  Used idiomatically with ato, saki, means “later, in the future”
        (1)  Ato de benkyō shimasu.                     I will study later.
        (2)  Dewa mata ato de.  .                           I’ll see you later.
        (3)  Saki de komarimasu.                            I’ll be in trouble in the future.
    i.  Following some nouns de changes nouns into adverbs:
        (1)  Sakana o nama de tabemasu.             I eat fish raw.
        (2)  Hadaka de tabemasu.                            I eat naked.
        (3)  Hadashi de arukimasu.                      I walk barefoot.

    a.  Attached to the conditional base of inflected words ba indicates a hypothesis or condition:  “if, when”
        (1)  Ame ga fureba ikimasen.                        If it rains, I won’t go.
        (2)  Chikakereba arukimasu.                     If it is near, I’ll walk.
        (3)  Tabenakereba ōkiku narimasen.          If you don’t eat, you’ll not become big.
    b.  Attached to the conditional base, ba is used conjunctively at the end of all but the last clause in a series of clauses that contain the particle mo.
        (1)  Sekai ni wa tsuyoi kuni mo areba yowai kuni mo arimasu.
                In the world, there are strong nations as well as weak ones.
        (2)  Watakushi ni wa tomodachi mo nakereba okane mo nai.
                I have neither friend nor money.
    c.  Attached to the conditional base, ba shows the direct proportion of one condition to another:  "the more . . . the more"
        (1)  Nereba neru hodo nemuku naru.
                The more I sleep the more sleepy I become.
        (2)  Benkyō sureba suru hodo jōzu ni narimasu..
                The more you study the more skillful you will become.
        (3)  Ano onna wa mireba miru hodo kirei desu.
                The more I look at that girl, the better she looks.

    Following the conjunctive base of verbs or the conjunctive adverbial base of adjectives, te forms their te forms.  The common usage of the te form of inflected words are discussed below.
    a.  The te form serves to connect two or more clauses.  In the case of a series of verbs in the te form, the actions are in sequence.  The tense, voice, mood, etc., is determined by the form of the final inflected word.
        (1)  Watakushi wa asa okite, asahan o tabete, gakkō e ikimashita.
                I got up in the morning, ate breakfast, and went to school!
        (2)  Hiruma wa akarukute yoru wa kurai desu.
                It is light in the daytime and dark at night.
        (3)  Hana ga saite, tori ga utatte iru.
                Flowers are blooming and the birds are singing.
    b.  The te form of verbs followed by iru indicates progressive action:
        (1)  Watakushi wa aruite imasu.                     I am walking.
        (2)  Watakushi wa hon o yonde imasu.            I am reading a book.
    c.  The te form of verbs followed by iru indicates persisting state or the perfect tense (verbs are usually intransitive):
        (1)  Watakushi wa Sumisu-san o shitte imasu.
                I know Mr. Smith.
        (2)  Mado ga aite imasu.
                The window is open.
        (3)  Yamamoto-san wa Nippon ni itte imasu.
                Mr. Yamamoto is in Japan.  (He went to Japan at sometime in the past and is there                       now.)
        (4)  Michi ni saifu ga ochite imasu.                A purse is lying on the road.
        d.  The te form of transitive verbs followed by arimasu indicates persisting state:
            (1)  To ga shimete arimasu.             The door is closed.
            (2)  Ji ga kaite arimasu.                   Characters are written.
        Note:  The particle ga instead of o is used in these examples.
    e.  The te form followed by kudasai indicates the polite imperative:
            (1)  Tatte kudasai.                         The door is closed.
            (2)  Yonde kudasai.                         Characters are written.
    f.  The te form followed by goran nasai or minasai  indicates “try and, do and see”
        (1)  Aruite goran nasai.                            Walk and see.  Please try to walk.
        (2)  Tabete goran nasai.                        Eat and see.
        (3)  Aruite minasai.                                Walk and see.
        (4)  Tabete minasai.                                Eat and see.
    g.  The te form of verbs followed by oku indicates “for future use or reference” or “just to leave alone”
        (1)  Kono kitte o hako no naka ni irete oite kudasai.
                Please put this stamp in the box (for future use).
        (2)  Kodomo o nesasete oite kudasai.
                Please let the child sleep and leave him alone.
    h.  The te form followed by shimau indicates:
            (a)  once and for all, completely, finished, up,
            (b)  at last,
        and often has the effect of the perfect tense.
                (1)  Tegami o kaite shimaimashita.
                        I have finished writing this letter.
                (2)  Sutete shimaimashita.
                        Throw it away (once and for all).
                (3)  Tabete shimaimashita.
                        I ate it up.
    i.  The te form followed by kuru indicates the following:
        (1)  Kaette kuru.                               I return.
        (2)  Motte kuru.                                I bring.
        (3)  Totte kuru.                                I bring back.
        (4)  Aruite kuru.                               I came walking.
        (5)  Katte kuru.                                I go and buy.
        (6)  Mite kuru.                                 I go and see.
        (7)  Itte kuru.                                 I come saying.
        (8)  Tsurete kuru.                              I bring along, I come with.
        (9)  Futte kuru.                                It begins to rain.
    j.  The te form followed by hoshii indicates “it is desirable” or “I wish to have something done”
        (1)  Jidōsha o katte hoshii.                    I wish to have a car bought.
        (2)  Anata ni tatte hoshii desu.            I want you to stand up.
    k.  Following the te form of verbs, the conjunctive-adverbial base of adjectives or inflected suffixes, te indicates reason or cause:
        (1)  Isogashikute hima ga arimasen.
                I have no leisure time, because I am busy.
        (2)  Kore wa muzukashikute wakarimasen.
                Because this is difficult, I don’t understand it.
    l.  Following the te form of verbs in a subordinate clause often indicates the manner or method of the action of the main verb.
        (1)  Isu ni koshikakete yasunde imasu.
                He is resting, sitting on the chair.
        (2)  Tatte tabete imasu.
                He is eating, standing up.
    m.  Following the te form and preceding morau, morau indicates, “to have somebody do something”
        (1)  Watakushi wa seito ni tabako o katte moraimashita.
                I had a student buy me cigarettes.
        (2)  Watakushi wa tokoya-san ni kami o katte moraimasu.
                I have a barber cut my hair.
    n.  Following the te form and preceding kureru, te kureru indicates “somebody do something for me”
            (1)  Seito wa watakushi ni tabako o katte kureta.
                A student bought me cigarettes.
        (2)  Nipponjin no tomodachi ga tegami o kaite kureta.
                A Japanese friend wrote the letter for me.

    a.  Wa is used to single out a word, phrase, or clause and is placed at the beginning of a sentence, and followed by a statement about it; conveys the notion of “as for”
        (1)  Kore wa hon desu.                              This is a book.
        (2)  Asahan wa rokuji ni tabemasu.              I eat breakfast at 6 o’clock.
        (3)  Tsukue no ue ni wa hon ga arimasu.     On the desk, there is a book.
    b.  Wa is also used to emphasize the negative.
        (1)  Kore wa enpitsu de wa arimasen.            This is not a pencil.
        (2)  Watakushi wa tatte wa imasen.              I am not standing.
                A Japanese friend wrote the letter for me.
    c.  Following the te form, wa sometimes means “if.”  Used with a negative verb or a word of negative idea like dame desu.
        (1)  Tokei ga nakute wa jikan ga wakarimasen.If there is no watch, I cannot tell time.
(2) Tatte wa ikemasen. You must not stand. (3) Tatte wa dame desu. You should not stand up.

    a.  Mo singles out an additional item that is similar to something already stated:  “also, too.”  Mo generally replaces wa, ga, and o and also follows other particles.
        (1)  Ano kata mo seito desu.
                He, too, is a student.
        (2)  Ano kata wa Nippongo mo hanashimasu.
                He speaks Japanese also.
        (3)  Tsukue no ue ni hon ga arimasu.
                There are books on the desk, too.
    b.  When used after each of two substantives in a sentence or clause ending with a positive verb, mo expresses “both . . . and.”  When so used in a sentence or clause ending with a negative verb mo is translated “neither . . . nor.”  In this case, the verb is translated positively.
        (1)  Ano kata wa Nippongo mo Eigo mo hanashimasu.
                He speaks both Japanese and English.
        (2)  Ano kata wa Nippongo mo Eigo mo hanashimasen.
                He speaks neither Japanese nor English.
    c.  Following a quantitative substantive mo expresses the notion “as many (much, far, long) as, no less than, even.“
        (1)  Tori ga jippa mo imasu.                        There are as many as 10 birds.
        (2)  Watakushi wa kanji o nihyaku mo shitte imasu.
                I know as many as 200 Kanji.
    d.  After nan plus classifiers, mo expresses the notion of “several, many.”
        (1)  Tori ga nan-ba mo imasu.                   There are many birds.
        (2)  Enpitsu ga nan-bon mo arimasu.         There are many pencils.
        (3)  Hito ga nan-nin mo imasu.                  There are many people.
    e.  When followed by negative verbs, mo converts interrogative pronouns into the corresponding “nothing, nobody, etc.”
        (1)  Watakushi wa nani mo shiremasen.       I don’t know anything.
        (2)  Koko ni wa dare mo imasen.                 There is nobody here.
    f.  Mo follows original particles to indicate “nowhere, to no one, etc.”
        (1)  Watakushi wa doko e mo ikimasen.       I go nowhere.
        (2)  Dare ni mo aimasen deshita.                    I met no one.

    a.  Coming at the end of a sentence, ka makes the sentence interrogative.
    b.  Placed between two nouns, and after each of two clauses ka gives the meaning of “or, or . . . or.”
        (1)  Ano kodomo wa muttsu ka nanatsu desu.      That child is 6 or 7 years old.
        (2)  Enpitsu ka mannenhitsu de kakimasu.            I write with pencil or fountain pen.
        (3)  Iku no desu ka, ikanai no desu ka.             Are you going or are you not going?
        (4)  Kore wa hon desu ka, zasshi desu ka.           Is this a book or a magazine?
    c.  Following deshō and darō, ka expresses doubt:  “I wonder if”
        (1)  Ashita wa ame ga furu deshō ka.            I wonder if it will rain tomorrow.
        (2)  Mō jūniji daro ka.                         I wonder if it is already 12 o’clock.
    d.  After many interrogative pronouns, ka converts the interrogative into corresponding indefinite pronouns or adverbs.
        (1)  Nani ka kudasai.                               Give me something.
        (2)  Koko ni dare ka imasu.                     There is somebody.
        (3)  Itsu ka kite kudasai.                          Please come sometime.
    e.  Mono ka  or mono desu ka at the end of sentences makes them emphatically negative:
        (1)  Ano hito ga sakana o taberu mono ka.   He wouldn’t eat fish!
        (2)  Sumisu-san wa kuru mono desu ka.       Mr. Smith won’t come.
    f.  Ka  is used after each of two clauses to put over the idea of “whether . . . or”
        (1)  Ashita wa ame ga furu ka furanai ka shirimasen.
                I don’t know whether it will rain tomorrow or not.
        (2)  Sore wa ii ka warui ka wakarimasen.        
                I don’t know whether it is good or bad.
    g.  Ka na or ka shira added to the conclusive-attributive base of inflected words and to substantives expresses doubt:  “I wonder if . . .”
        (1)  Ano hito wa kuru ka shira.                 I wonder if he will come.
        (2)  Ashita wa atsui ka na.                         I wonder if it will be hot tomorrow.
    h.  Ja nai ka or ja arimasen ka indicates exhortation:
        (1)  Kaerō ja nai ka.                                   Let’s go home, shall we?
        (2)  Kaerō ja arimasen ka.                          Let’s go home, shall we?

から

    a. Following nouns, kara indicates the point of origin:  “from”
        (1)  Tōkyō kara Yokohama e ikimasu.         I go from Tokyo to Yokohama.
        (2)  Ichi kara jū made kazoete kudasai.     Please count from one to ten.
    b.  Following the conclusive-attributive base of verbs, adjectives, etc., kara indicates the cause or reason for the following statements:  “because, since, as”
    However, as a reason or excuse in reply to a question or accusation, kara is often used                 after desu or deshita and comes at the end of a clause.
        Naze ikimasen deshita ka.                       Why didn’t you go?
        Anmari isogashii deshita kara.              Because I was too busy.
    c.  Following the te form of verbs, kara means “after, since.”
        (1)  Asa okite kara sanpo shimasu.          That child is 6 or 7 years old.
        (2)  Uchi e kaette kara benkyō shimashita.
                I studied after I went home.
        (3)  Kono gakkō e kite kara san-kagetsu ni narimasu.
                It has been three months since I came to this school.

より

    a.  Indicates the standard of a comparative statement:  “than.”
        (1)  A wa B yori ōkii desu.                     A is larger than B.
        (2)  Hayaku okiru no wa osoku no yori ii desu.
                I don’t know whether it is good or bad.
    b.  Followed by negative verbs, yori indicates the limits within which the action of the verb is confined.  In this usage, hoka, hoka ni, or shika may be used between yori and the negative verb without change in meaning.
        (1)  Watakushi wa anata yori (hoka ni) dare mo shiranai.
                I don’t know anyone except you.
        (2)  Ano hito wa taberu yori hoka nani mo shiranai.
                He doesn’t know anything except eating.
        (3)  Eiga yori shika iku tokoro ga nai.
                There is no place to go except the movies.

とも

    a.  This compound particle is formed by adding mo to the te form of verbs and conjunctive adverbial base of adjectives, and expresses the concessive mood:  "“even if, although”
        (1)  Tabete mo ōkiku narimasen.             Even if I eat, I don’t grow big.
        (2)  Atsukute mo ikimasu.                       Even if it is hot, I’ll go.
    b.  Used with words such as itsu, dono, nani, ikura, donna ni, the notion expressed is “no matter when . . .,” “no matter where . . .,” “no matter what . . .,” “no matter how . . .,” “no matter how much . . .”
        (1)  Fuji-san wa itsu mite mo kirei desu.
                Mt. Fuji is beautiful no matter when you look at it.
        (2)  Doko e itte mo atsui desu.             No matter where you go, it is hot.
        (3)  Nani o katte mo takai desu.                It is expensive no matter what you buy.
        (4)  Ikura tabete mo ōkiku narimasen.       No matter how much I eat, I don’t grow big.
        (5)  Ikura yasukute mo kaimasen.            No matter how cheap it is, I don’t buy it.
        (6)  Donna ni benkyō shite mo yoku dekimasen.
                No matter who much I study, I can’t do well.
    c.  The same forms (te mo or de mo) followed by ii, or  ii n desu, indicates permission:  “may, it is all right to . . .”
        (1)  Ima tatte mo ii n desu.
                You may stand now.
        (2)  Mijikakute mo ii n desu.
                It is all right even if it is short.
        (3)  Heta de mo ii n desu ka
                Is it all right even if I’m not good.
    d.  Te mo following the negative naku indicates the negative concessive.
        (1)  Te ga nakute mo aruku koto ga dekimasu.
                I can walk, even if I don’t have hands.
        (2)  Yasuku nakute mo kaimashō.
                Even if it is not inexpensive, let’s buy it.
        (3)  Tabenakute mo ōkiku narimasu.
                I grow big even if I don’t eat.
    e.  The same form followed by ii or ii n desu expresses non-necessity:  “needn’t, to be all right not to, don’t have to”
        (1)  Ikanakute mo ii n desu.                    You don’t have to go.
        (2)  Nagaku nakute mo ii n desu.                It is all right even if it is not long.

のに

    a.  Following the conclusive bases of inflected words, no ni expresses opposition to the action stated by the verb:  “although, but, in spite of the fact”
        (1)  Yoku taberu no ni ōkiku narimasen.
                Although I eat a lot, I don’t grow big.
        (2)  Yoku benkyō shita no ni mada wakarimasen.
                I studied hard, but still I don’t understand.
    b.  Following the conclusive-attributive base of verbs, no ni indicates purpose or aim and corresponds roughly to:  “for the purpose of, in order to, for”
        (1)  Sore wa motte aruku no ni benri desu.
                It is convenient for carrying around.
        (2)  Jibiki wa kotoba no imi o shiru no ni tsukaimasu.
                A dictionary is used for the purpose of finding the meaning of words.

ので

    Following the conclusive bases of inflected words, no de indicates the cause or reason for the following statement:  “since, because, as”
        (1)  Kyō wa samui no de sanpo ni ikimasen.
                Because today is cold, I will not go for a walk.
        (2)  Konban wa tomodachi ga kuru no de uchi ni imasu.
                Because my friend is coming tonight, I’ll stay home.

    a.  Following the conclusive bases of inflected words, shi simply connects two clauses:  “and”
        (1)  Monterey wa natsu wa suzushii shi fuyu wa atatakai.
                In Monterey, summers are cool and winters are warm.
        (2)  Watakushi wa tabako o nomu shi sake mo nomimasu.
                I smoke and drink, too.
    b.  Following the conclusive bases of inflected words, particularly conjectural auxiliaries, shi means:  “since, after all”
        Ashita wa ame ga furu darō shi watakushi wa ikimasen.
            Since, after all, it probably will rain tomorrow, I am not going.

ながら

    a.  Attached to the conjunctive base of verbs, nagara indicates simultaneous action or state:  “while”
        (1)  Watakushi wa yomi nagara arukimasu.
                I walk while reading.
        (2)  Ano hito wa kaki nagara hanashite imasu.
                He is talking while writing.
    b.  Attached to the conjunctive base of verbs, usually to that of te iru and to the conclusive base of adjectives, etc., nagara indicates opposition or disagreement:  “although, even if”
        (1)  Ano hito wa shitte inagara hanashimasen.
                Although he knows, he does not speak.
        (2)  Ano hito wa chiisai nagara chikara ga tsuyoi desu.
                Although he is small, he is strong.

たり

    a.  Following the te form base,  tari connects two or more clauses.  The last tari must be followed by suru:  “sometimes, alternately”
        (1)  Watakushi wa tenisu o shitari sanpo o shitari shimasu.
                I sometimes play tennis and sometimes take walks.
        (2)  Ano hito wa kaki nagara hanashite imasu.
                He is talking while writing.
    b.  Attached to the conjunctive base of verbs, usually to that of te iru and to the conclusive base of adjectives, etc., nagara indicates opposition or disagreement:  “although, even if”
        (1)  Ano hito wa shitte inagara hanashimasen.
                Although he knows, he does not speak.
        (2)  Ano hito wa chiisai nagara chikara ga tsuyoi desu.
                Although he is small, he is strong.

まで

    a.  Following nouns or the conclusive bases of verbs, made indicates the point to which an action or state extends:  “till, until, as far as, to”
        (1)  Ichi kara jū made kazoete kudasai.     Please count from one to ten.
        (2)  Sanji made machimashita.                   I waited till 3 o’clock.
        (3)  Hi ga kureru made hatarakimasu.            I work until the sun sets.
    b.  Following nouns and particles, made singles out a thing or fact, suggesting a larger field for the application of the verb or adjective:  “even”
        (1)  Hone made tabemashita.                 I even ate the bones.
        (2)  Kodomo ni made chiisai.                    It is small even for children.
    Note:  This made may be replaced by sae.

でも

    a.  Following nouns and particles, de mo singles out a thing or fact for consideration and indicates that one does not care much one way or the other:  “some (one, . . .thing), perhaps”
        (1)  Ocha de mo nomimashō.                  Shall we drink tea or something?
        (2)  Monterey e de mo ikimashō.             Let’s go to Monterey or someplace.
    b.  Following nouns de mo, means “even”
        (1)  Watakushi de mo shitte imasu.
                Even I know it.
        (2)  Mannenhitsu ga nakereba enpitsu de mo ii desu.
                If you don’t have a fountain-pen, (even) a pencil will do.
    c.  Following interrogative pronouns, de mo indicates:  “any . . .”
        (1)  Dare de mo shitte imasu.                   Anybody knows it.
        (2)  Nan de mo arimasu.                     We have everything.

さえ

    a.  Following nouns or particles, sae singles out a thing or fact and suggests other things or facts by analogy:  “even.”  The particle de may precede sae.
        (1)  Isogashikute shimbun (de) sae yomemasen.
                Being busy, I can’t read even the newspapers.
        (2)  Kodomo (de) sae tabemasen.
            Even the children don’t eat (it).
    b.  Following the particle ni, sae means:  “even by, even to”
        (1)  Sensei ni sae dekimasen.                   (It) cannot be done even by the instructor.
        (2)  Kanai ni sae iimasen.                      I don’t tell even my wife.
    c.  In a conditional clause, sae singles out a thing or fact and excludes all others:  “(if) only”
        (1)  Monterey wa tenki sae yokereba ii tokoro desu.
                If only the weather were good, Monterey would be a nice place.
        (2)  Ame ga furi sae shinakereba yorokonde ikimasu.
                If only it doesn’t rain, I’ll be glad to go.

しか

    Shika follows nouns and particles, and is in turn followed by a negative verb and should be translated as “only,” the negative verb being rendered positively.
        (1)  Ashi ga ippon shika arimasen.
                There is only one leg.
        (2)  Gakkō de shika Nippongo o hanashimasen.
                I speak Japanese only at school.

だけ

    a.  Following nouns, particles, and conclusive bases of inflected words, dake means:  “only, just, alone, at least” 
        (1)  Anata ni dake hanashimashō.
                I’ll tell it only to you.
        (2)  Watakushi wa sakana dake tabemasu.
            Even the children don’t eat (it).
        (3)  Kodomo wa asa kara ban made asobu dake ga shigoto desu.
                For children, just playing all day is their job.
        (4)  Kono shinamono wa takai dake de anmari yoku arimasen.
                This article is just expensive and not very good.
    b.  Dake followed by ate and dake ate means:  “as might be expected of”
        (1)  Sensei dake atte Nippongo ga jozū desu.
                As might be expected of a teacher, he is proficient in Japanese.
        (2)  Takai shinamono dake ate taihen ii desu.
                As might be expected of an expensive item, it is very good.
    c.  The conditional base of verbs or adjectives plus the conclusive-attributive base of the same verbs or adjectives plus dake expresses the idea of “the more . . . the more”, etc.
        (1)  Nomeba nomu dake nomitai.
                The more I drink the more I want to drink.
        (2)  Yomeba yomu dake jōzu ni narimsu.
                The more you read, the better you become.
        (3)  Hayakereba hayai dake ii desu.
                The quicker it is, the better it is.
        d.  Conclusive-attributive base of potential verbs plus dake means “as much as”
        (1)  Nomeru dake nominasai.                 Drink as much as you can.
        (2)  Hatarakeru dake hatarakimashō.     I’ll work as much as I can.

ばかり

    a.  Following nouns, bakari expresses extent and means:  “about, around”
        Maitsuki tabemono ni nihyaku doru bakari kakarimasu.
            It costs about $200 for food every month.
    b.  It also expresses the meaning “only, just”
        (1)  Following nouns and particles:
            (a)  Ano hito wa benkyō bakari shite imasu.
                He only studies (and does nothing else).
            (b)  Ano ko wa hahaoya no soba ni bakari imasu.
                    That child stays only by his mother.
        (2)  Following conclusive-attributive base of inflected words:
             (a)  Kono hon wa takai bakari desu.
                    This book is just expensive (and nothing else).
             (b)  Hon o yomu bakari de mo dame desu.
                    It is not good to just read a book.
             (c)  Watakushi wa uchi ni kaetta bakari desu.
                    I have just come home.
             (d)  Ano hito wa Nippon e itta bakari desu.
                    He has just gone to Japan.
    c.  Bakari followed by de naku means:  “not only . . . but . . .”
        (1)  Ano hito wa Nippongo bakari de naku Eigo mo shitte imasu.
                He knows not only Japanese but also English.
        (2)  Ano hito wa hanasu bakari de naku yomu koto mo dekimasu.
                He can not only speak but also read.
    d.  Bakari followed by ni natte iru means “to be about ready to . . .”
        Kono tegami wa dasu bakari ni natte imasu.
            This letter is about ready to be mailed.
        e.  Bakari ni follows to iwanu and means “as if to say, as if saying”
        Yamada-san wa dete ike to iwanu bakari ni watakushi o mimashita.
            Mr. Yamada looked at me as if to say, “Get out!”
    f.  Bakari ni follows aru and means “only because”
        Hanako wa onna de aru bakari ni gunjin ni naremasen.
            Hanako cannot become a soldier only because she is a woman.

なり . . . なり

    Nari . . . nari is used after each of two or more nouns, phrases, or clauses, and suggests that one of the nouns, phrases, or clauses should be chosen:  “whether . . . or, either . . . or”
    (1)  Ringo nari mikan nari tabemashō.
            Let’s eat either apples or oranges.
    (2)  Deru nari hairu nari nan to ka shite kudasai.
            Either get out or get in, please do something.

こそ

    a.  Koso is an emphatic particle attached to nouns and means:  “the very, indeed”
        (1)  Watakushi koso orei o iwanakereba narimasen.
                I should be the very one who should thank you.
        (2)  Kondo koso (wa) iku.
            I’ll go this time for sure (indeed).
    b.  Following the conditional base plus ba, koso helps to emphatically indicate the reason or cause of a succeeding statement:  “It is because (of this) that . . .”
        (1)  Yoku tabereba koso okiku naru no desu.
                It is because he eats a lot that he grows big.
        (2)  Ano hito wa benkyō sureba koso Nippongo ga jōzu ni naru no desu.
                It is because he studies that he becomes good in Japanese.

    Zo is an interjectional particle used by men.
        (1)  Ashita mo samuku naru zo.                  It’s going to be cold tomorrow, too.
        (2)  Mata kita zo.                                      I’m coming again tomorrow
    31.  Yo
    Yo is also an interjectional particle used by both men and women.
        (1)  Ashita mata kuru yo.                           It’s going to be cold tomorrow, too.
        (2)  Mata kita zo.                                      I’m coming again tomorrow.
                                                                    (Masculine or feminine to an inferior).

Na

    Following the conclusive-attributive base of a verb (present tense), na expresses prohibition or a negative imperative:
    (1)  Eigo de hanasu na.                                 Don’t speak in English.
    (2)  Soto o miru na.                                        Don’t look outside.

    a.  Following the conclusive-attributive base of inflected words, nā gives interjectional meaning:  “certainly” used by men.
        (1)  Kyō wa atsui nā.                                   It certainly is hot today.
        (2)  Ano onna no hito wa utsukushii nā.     How beautiful that woman is!
        (3)  Ano seito wa yoku benkyō suru nā.          That student certainly studies hard!
        (4)  Kore wa ii hon da nā.                          This certainly is a good book.
    b.  Ii nā:  Following the conditional statement, to ii nā, ba ii nā, nara ii na   helps to emphatically indicate the reason or cause of a succeeding statement:  “It is because (of this) that . . .”
(1) Okane ga areba ii (ga) nā. I wish I had money. (2) Kyō wa nichiyōbi nara ii (ga) nā. I wish it were Sunday today. (3) Ano hito ga kuru to ii (ga) nā. I wish he would come.

Ne, Nē

    a.  Following the conclusive-attributive base of inflected words, nē indicates disjunctive questions such as “isn’t it, aren’t you”
        (1)  Kyō wa atsui desu nē.                          It’s hot today, isn’t it?
        (2)  Kino wa warui tenki deshita nē.                It was awful weather yesterday, wasn’t it?
    b.  Following the conclusive-attributive base of inflected words, ne also indicates disjunctive questions such as “isn’t it, aren’t you, etc.”
        Kyō wa atsui desu ne.                           It’s hot today, isn’t it?
    35.  Sa
    Interjectional particle used by both men and women.  Sa comes at the end of sentences and gives the meaning of:  “indeed, I assure you, I say”
    (1)  Ano hito mo iku sa.                                    He’ll go, I assure you.
    (2)  Sakana mo suki sa.                                 I like fish, too, indeed.

Ze

    Interjectional particle used by men.  Ze comes at the end of sentences and gives the meaning of:  “I tell you, I assure you”
    (1)  Ashita wa ame ga furu ze.                      It’s going to rain tomorrow, I tell you.
    (2)  Sore wa abunai ze.                                 That’s dangerous, I tell you.

Tomo

    Tomo comes at the end of sentences and gives the meaning of:  “of course, indeed, to be sure, certainly”
    (1)  Sō desu tomo.                                      Of course, it is so.
    (2)  Sore wa abunai ze.                                 That’s dangerous, I tell you.

Wa

    Interjectional particle used by women.  Wa comes at the end of sentences and gives the emphatic meaning:  “indeed”
    (1)  Watakushi mo iku wa.                               I’ll go too.
    (2)  Kono sakana wa oishii wa.                      This fish tastes good, indeed.

Keredomo, keredo

    Following the conclusive bases of inflected words, keredomo or keredo expresses opposition to the action stated by the verb:  “but”
    (1)  Yoku taberu keredomo ōkiku narimasen.
            I eat a lot, but I don’t grow big.
    (2)  Yoku benkyō shita keredomo yoku wakarimasen.
            I studied hard, but I didn’t understand well.